Top 10 Tiger Reserves in India You Must Visit
Tiger Reserves in India – Tiger reserves are designated areas in India that are specifically established for the protection and conservation of the Bengal tiger. These reserves provide a safe and secure habitat for the tigers to thrive, while also promoting sustainable tourism and protecting the biodiversity of the surrounding ecosystems.
18 Indian states have 51 tiger reserves. These reserves differ in size and topography, but all aim to conserve tigers. The largest tiger reserve in India is the 3,568-square-kilometre Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve, while the smallest is the 550 sqkm Dampa Tiger Reserve. Indian tiger reserves protect and conserve the Bengal tiger. These reserves safeguard tigers, promote sustainable tourism, and preserve habitats.
India has several animals, including the Bengal Tiger. India has many tiger reserves to conserve endangered species. This article discusses India’s tiger reserves, their conservation efforts, and visitor experiences.
Importance of Tiger Reserves in Protecting Endangered Species
Tiger reserves protect endangered wildlife and the Bengal tiger. These reserves safeguard tigers, other species, and their ecosystems. They are top predators and regulate prey populations and habitats. Tiger reserves also safeguard deer, wild boar, monkeys, and birds.
It also safeguards vital ecosystems like forests, rivers, and wetlands. These reserves’ woods absorb greenhouse gases, reducing climate change. These forests also provide freshwater to millions downstream. Tiger reserves preserve these ecosystems to preserve the environment and human life. Tiger Reserves offer research and education.
Tigers and their prey can be studied in their natural habitat, revealing their behavior and ecology. Tiger reserves can also teach people about conservation and endangered species.
Tiger reserves preserve endangered species and environments. These reserves protect nature and offer research and education. Thus, to protect endangered species and human life, these reserves must be protected and conserved.
History of Tiger Reserves in India
Origin and Evolution of Tiger Reserves in India
The Indian government established tiger reserves in the early 1970s to conserve the fast-diminishing tiger population. Project Tiger was created by the Indian government in 1972 to conserve and protect tigers.
Nine tiger reserves—Sariska, Palamau, Simlipal, Bandipur, Kanha, Manas, Melghat, Pench, and Shivpuri—launched the project. These reserves were chosen for their tiger populations and conservation potential. The project sought to double India’s tiger population in a decade by creating a network of tiger-protected habitats.
Indian tiger reserves have increased over time. 50 tiger reserves in 18 Indian states occupy about 72,000 square kilometers. The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) was founded in 2005 to administer Project Tiger to safeguard tigers and their habitats.
Indian tiger reserves have evolved from safeguarding tigers to protecting their habitats and ecology. This method emphasizes that safeguarding tigers involves a comprehensive strategy that considers the health of their ecosystem, including the flora and fauna that support them.
Scientists and environmentalists study tigers’ behavior, biology, and dangers like habitat degradation, poaching, and human-wildlife conflict in India’s tiger reserves. Tourists from around the world visit the reserves to observe tigers in their natural habitat and learn about conservation.
In conclusion, India’s tiger reserves were created to protect the country’s diminishing tiger population. These reserves have risen in quantity and importance, protecting tigers, their habitats, and their ecology. Tiger reserves are vital for study, conservation, and tourism, underscoring the need to balance conservation with economic development and sustainable tourism.
How was Tiger Reserve created?
The Indian government established tiger reserves to safeguard the Bengal tiger and its habitat. Creating tiger reserves requires identifying suitable locations, assessing ecological and biodiversity values, community discussions, and NTCA approval.
A tiger reserve is usually selected based on tiger population, ecological and biological values, and linkage to other protected areas. Experts evaluate a suitable area’s ecological and biodiversity values. This assessment involves flora and fauna surveys, habitat mapping, and ecological process analysis.
Tiger reserves require community consultations. Local people, who typically reside near the proposed regions, are consulted to understand their dependence on natural resources and their conservation perspectives. Tiger conservation relies on local communities.
After examination and community engagement, the NTCA receives a tiger reserve proposal. The NTCA, a statutory agency within the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change, assesses the request using guidelines and criteria. The NTCA approves the tiger reserve if it fits the criteria.
The NTCA declares the region a tiger reserve and begins building roads, visitor centers, and anti-poaching camps. Forest officials and employees administer tiger reserves through habitat management, anti-poaching patrols, and population monitoring.
Creating a tiger reserve involves government agencies, local communities, and conservation professionals in a multi-step process. Tiger reserves have saved the Bengal tiger and other endangered species that share its habitat.
Popular Tiger Reserves in India
1 Nagarjunsagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve
Andhra Pradesh’s Nallamala Hills host Nagarjunsagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve. The 3,568-square-kilometer reserve was founded in 1983. The reserve is named after Nagarjunsagar and Srisailam reservoirs, popular tourist locations.
Tigers, leopards, sloth bears, spotted deer, sambar deer, nilgai, wild boars, Indian giant squirrels, and others live in the tiger reserve. The area has around 300 bird species, including the endangered Jerdon’s courser.
The tiger reserve has mountains, plateaus, valleys, and woods. The reserve has core, buffer, and tourism zones. The buffer zone is available for ecotourism and study, but the core area is protected. Safaris and reserve beauty are available in the tourism zone.
The Nagarjunsagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve conserves tigers. One of India’s most important tiger habitats, the reserve has 70 tigers. The reserve has also helped the Indian giant squirrel and Jerdon’s courser recover.
The forest department uses anti-poaching patrols, habitat management, and community conservation to conserve tiger reserve animals. Eco-tourism and animal protection training have helped local populations become less dependent on forest resources.
Finally, Nagarjunsagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve in Andhra Pradesh protects tigers and other endangered animals. The reserve’s fauna and unique landscape attract tourists. The forest department’s wildlife protection and community conservation activities are outstanding.
2 Kamlang Tiger Reserve
Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary is near Lohit, Arunachal Pradesh. Its varied vegetation and animals cover 783 square kilometers. The sanctuary’s Kamlang River gives it its name.
The refuge is hilly and 200–4500 meters above sea level. The sanctuary has tropical and subtropical woods, bamboo groves, and grasslands. The sanctuary houses the clouded leopard, tiger, elephant, gaur, serow, barking deer, musk deer, red panda, and Himalayan black bear.
The sanctuary houses several species, including Arunachal Pradesh’s state bird, the white-winged wood duck. The big Indian hornbill, wreathed hornbill, black stork, and grey peacock-pheasant are also noteworthy birds.
Trekking, camping, and birdwatching are common at Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary. The Kamlang River offers angling and rafting. Visit the sanctuary between October and April when the weather is nice and the wildlife is busy.
The Arunachal Pradesh Forest Department protects wildlife and their habitats in the sanctuary. The agency promotes animal conservation and engages local people.
3 Namdapha Tiger Reserve
Arunachal Pradesh’s Namdapha Tiger Reserve is India’s easternmost. It borders Myanmar and covers 1,985 square kilometers. The harsh terrain, steep hills, deep gorges, and dense forests of the Namdapha River reserve give it its name.
Namdapha Tiger Reserve has several unique and endangered kinds of flora and fauna. The reserve’s varied wildlife population includes tigers, leopards, clouded leopards, Asiatic black bears, red pandas, elephants, and more. It attracts birdwatchers with approximately 400 bird species.
The reserve has alpine, tundra, and tropical forests. Evergreen bamboo, oak, and rhododendron dominate the forests. Local indigenous populations employ the reserve’s many medicinal plants.
The 1972 wildlife sanctuary Namdapha Tiger Reserve became a national park in 1983. It became a Project Tiger tiger reserve in 1986. The Forest Department of Arunachal Pradesh protects wildlife and habitats with anti-poaching patrols and community-based conservation programs.
The virgin forests and rich flora and fauna of Namdapha Tiger Reserve provide a unique wildlife experience. The reserve has various routes for hiking and camping among the forests and hills. The reserve’s remoteness needs meticulous planning and preparation. The reserve is best visited from October to April when the weather is pleasant and the woodlands are lush.
4 Pakke Tiger Reserve
Pakke Tiger Reserve is a protected area in the northeastern state of Arunachal Pradesh in India. The reserve is located in the East Kameng district and covers an area of approximately 862 square kilometers. The Pakke River flows through the reserve and is a major source of water for the surrounding forests and wildlife.
Numerous plant and animal species live in the reserve. It is also one of the most important protected areas for the conservation of the Indian hornbill. Other important species found in the reserve include the elephant, Bengal tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, gaur, sambar, barking deer, and wild pig. The reserve is also home to several species of primates, including the hoolock gibbon, capped langur, and Assamese macaque.
Pakke Tiger Reserve was originally established as the Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary in 1977 to protect the wildlife of the area. It was later declared a tiger reserve in 2002 to protect the Bengal tiger, which was facing a serious threat of extinction. The reserve is now a part of Project Tiger, a national program for the conservation of tigers and their habitats.
The reserve is also important for the local communities living in and around the area. The Nyishi tribe is the largest tribe in the area and has a strong cultural and traditional connection to the forests and wildlife of the reserve. The reserve has implemented various community-based conservation initiatives to involve the local communities in the conservation efforts and to provide them with alternative livelihood opportunities.
The Pakke Tiger Reserve offers a unique opportunity for visitors to experience the rich biodiversity of the northeastern region of India. The reserve offers hiking, birdwatching, and wildlife excursions. Visitors can see the forest and its fauna from November to April at the reserve.
5 Kaziranga Tiger Reserve
Assam’s Kaziranga Tiger Reserve is protected. It became a Tiger Reserve in 2006. The 1,030-square-kilometer reserve lies on the southern Brahmaputra River.
The Indian one-horned rhinoceros is found only in the Kaziranga Tiger Reserve. One of the most biodiverse places in the country, it has tigers, elephants, wild water buffalo, swamp deer, and many bird species.
The reserve has grasslands, wetlands, and deep trees. The grasslands, called “beels,” have minor hills, water bodies, and riverine forests. Wildlife gets water from the park’s streams and rivers.
Conservation and anti-poaching initiatives have made Kaziranga Tiger Reserve famous. The reserve has about 2400 rhinoceros, up from 200 in the 1900s. Due to government protection, the reserve boasts a large tiger population.
From November to April, the reserve offers jeep safaris, elephant rides, and bird watching tours. The meadows are lush and the weather is pleasant from November to February. However, monsoon flooding closes the park.
The Kaziranga Tiger Reserve successfully conserves tigers and other endangered species. It promotes tourism, which creates local jobs.
6 Manas Tiger Reserve
Assam’s Manas Tiger Reserve is one of India’s 50 tiger reserves. The reserve’s rich biodiversity includes rare and endangered species like the Royal Bengal Tiger, Indian one-horned rhinoceros, Asian elephant, clouded leopard, and pygmy hog.
The 1973 Manas Tiger Reserve became a UNESCO Natural World Heritage Site in 1985. The Himalayan foothills reserve comprises 2837 square kilometers.
Tropical moist deciduous and semi-evergreen forests dominate the reserve. The reserve’s northern limit is the Bhutan foothills and the Manas River. The area has steep hills, alluvial plains, and tropical rainforests.
The reserve has about 60 animals, 300 birds, 42 reptiles, and 7 amphibians. The Bengal slow loris, capped langur, hoolock gibbon, Indian pangolin, sambar deer, and barking deer also live here.
Leopards, clouded leopards, and dholes (Indian wild dogs) share the reserve with tigers and rhinoceroses. Elephants are vital to the ecosystem in the reserve.
Wildlife and eco-tourists visit the Manas Tiger Reserve. Jeep, elephant, and river excursions allow visitors to tour the reserve and see its wildlife. Adventure tourists can trek and camp in the reserve.
The reserve conducts habitat management, anti-poaching patrols, and community-based conservation activities. The Manas Biosphere Reserve includes the tiger reserve and surrounding forests and farms. While preserving wildlife, the biosphere reserve promotes sustainable development.
7 Nameri Tiger Reserve
Nameri Tiger Reserve is in Sonitpur, Assam, in the eastern Himalayan foothills. In 1999, it became a Bengal tiger reserve to conserve the Eastern Himalayan moist mixed forests and Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests.
The reserve also houses Indian elephants, clouded leopards, gaurs, wild water buffaloes, and various deer species. Over 300 bird species, including endangered ones like the white-winged wood duck and great hornbill, make it a birdwatcher’s paradise.
Trekking, birdwatching, river rafting, and camping are ecotourism activities at the reserve. The reserve’s Nameri National Park lets visitors see the area’s rich wildlife.
Nameri Tiger Reserve’s Jia Bhoroli River is home to various fish species, including the golden mahseer, a valued game fish. To safeguard fish and their habitat, river fishing is regulated.
Community-based tourism and eco-friendly efforts are helping local populations around the reserve sustain their livelihoods. The forest department’s Nameri Eco-Camp promotes sustainable tourism and the local economy.
Nameri Tiger Reserve is a perfect example of India’s conservation efforts, where sustainable development and community participation conserve wildlife and their ecosystems.
8 Orang Tiger Reserve
Orang Tiger Reserve is in Darrang and Sonitpur, Assam, India. The 492.46-square-kilometer tiger reserve was established in 2016.
Tigers, elephants, leopards, clouded leopards, Indian bison, deer, and primates inhabit the reserve. Birds and the extremely endangered pygmy hog use the reserve.
Orang Tiger Reserve has meadows, woods, and wetlands. Several smaller rivers and streams cross the reserve on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River.
The reserve offers vehicle safaris, elephant safaris, and birding in addition to conservation. These activities allow tourists to see wildlife in their natural habitat and raise money for conservation.
The Orang Tiger Reserve has helped protect endangered species and their habitats. The reserve protects these animals for future generations.
9 Valmiki Tiger Reserve
Valmiki Tiger Reserve is located in the northern part of the Indian state of Bihar and covers an area of approximately 899 square kilometers. It is one of the most important tiger reserves in Bihar and is home to a wide range of flora and fauna.
The reserve was established in 1989 as a wildlife sanctuary and was later declared a tiger reserve in 1994 under the Project Tiger initiative. The area is named after the ancient sage Valmiki, who is said to have composed the epic Ramayana.
Valmiki Tiger Reserve is located in the Himalayan foothills and is characterized by its diverse vegetation. The reserve is dominated by sal and bamboo forests, along with grasslands and scrublands. The reserve is also home to a variety of animals, including tigers, leopards, sloth bears, Indian wild dogs, sambar deer, and several species of birds and reptiles.
The Valmiki National Park, located within the reserve, is the core area of the reserve and is home to the largest population of tigers in Bihar. The reserve is also an important habitat for several other endangered species, such as the Indian pangolin and the fishing cat.
The reserve offers several opportunities for wildlife viewing and trekking. Visitors can take guided tours of the park, go on nature walks, and explore the various trails within the reserve. The reserve also offers camping facilities for visitors who wish to stay overnight.
Valmiki Tiger Reserve is an important conservation area and plays a crucial role in preserving the biodiversity of the region. The reserve has been successful in conserving the tiger population and has also helped in the conservation of other endangered species.
10 Achanakmar Tiger Reserve
Achanakmar Tiger Reserve is near Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh. The 551-square-kilometer reserve was established in 2009. Tigers, leopards, sloth bears, wild dogs, deer, and antelopes live there.
The reserve includes hills, plateaus, and the Maikal mountain range. The reserve features tropical summers and pleasant winters. The reserve has tropical deciduous forests, bamboo groves, and grasslands.
The reserve offers jungle safaris, walking, and camping. Watchtowers and machans throughout the park offer great wildlife viewing.
The reserve’s authorities are conserving wildlife habitats and tigers and other endangered animals. To do this, they have used anti-poaching patrols, habitat restoration, and community involvement.
Wildlife and nature lovers visit the reserve because it has increased the tiger population.
Wildlife in Tiger Reserves
Different Types of Wildlife Found in India’s Tiger Reserves
Tigers aren’t the only animals in India’s tiger reserves. Indian tiger reserves host the following wildlife:
Most Indian tiger reserves have the secretive Indian leopard.
- Indian Elephant: The largest land animal in India, found in great numbers in Bandhavgarh, Nagarhole, and Periyar tiger reserves.
- Sloth Bears: Bandhavgarh, Kanha, and Tadoba tiger sanctuaries have these shaggy-coated animals.
- Indian Bison (Gaur): One of India’s largest wild cattle species, they can be seen in Bandipur, Nagarhole, and Periyar tiger reserves.
- Spotted Deer (Chital): One of the most abundant deer species in India’s tiger sanctuaries.
- Sambar Deer: The largest deer in India is found in most tiger sanctuaries.
- Wild Boar: These are the most common wild pigs in the world and are found in most Indian tiger reserves.
- Indian Wild Dog (Dhole): These pack-hunting canines live in Bandipur, Nagarahole, and Kanha tiger sanctuaries.
- Indian Pangolin: Found in Satpura and Pench tiger reserves, one of the rarest creatures.
- Marsh crocodile: Found in Sundarbans and Sariska tiger reserves’ waterways.
Birds, reptiles, amphibians, and smaller animals also live in tiger reserves. India’s tiger reserves are significant for conservation because of their wildlife richness.
Trekking and Safari in Tiger Reserves
Different Types of Safari Experiences Available in Tiger Reserves
Indian tiger reserves offer safaris to see the wildlife and scenery. Tiger reserve safaris include:
- Jeep Safari – Tiger reserve safaris are mostly jeep safaris. Guided jeep tours of the woodland are available. Jeep safaris are good for long distances for spotting big cats and other animals.
- Elephant Safari – Elephant safaris allow riders to explore woods riding elephants. To identify wildlife, elephants are trained to go silently through the forest.
- Canoe Safari – River, lake, and wetland tiger reserves offer canoe safaris. Visitors can see crocodiles, turtles, and water birds in the rivers.
- Walking Safari – Walking safaris offer a more immersive woodland experience. Naturalists lead visitors through the area’s vegetation and fauna.
- Night Safari – Some tiger reserves provide evening forest tours. Owls, civets, and flying squirrels can be seen with spotlights.
- Bicycle Safari – Some tiger reserves offer bicycle safaris so guests can explore the jungle pathways at their own pace. Birdwatching and small mammal observation are best on bicycle excursions.
- Horse Safari – Some tiger reserves offer horse safaris for jungle exploration. Long-distance horse safaris are good for wildlife viewing.
These safaris showcase India’s tiger reserves’ wildlife and natural splendor while aiding endangered species conservation.
Trekking and Camping Opportunities in Tiger Reserves
Wildlife lovers can walk and camp in Indian tiger reserves. Trekking and camping are ideal in these hilly or forested reserves.
In tiger reserves, guides lead trekkers through deep forests, describing the flora and fauna. Easy, moderate, and severe trekking routes may need physical fitness. Tiger reserves allow close-up wilderness exploration.
Wildlife enthusiasts also camp in tiger reserves. Most tiger reserves provide secure camping places. These campsites have restrooms, running water, and a campfire. Visitors can camp in tiger reserves to hear the jungle and see nocturnal wildlife.
Camping and trekking in tiger reserves should be done properly with skilled professionals. Visitors should observe park rules to stay safe and reduce their environmental impact.
Best Time to Visit Tiger Reserves
Here is the information on the best time to visit each tiger reserve in India:
- Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve: The best time to visit is from October to May.
- Kamlang Tiger Reserve: The best time to visit is from October to April.
- Namdapha Tiger Reserve: The best time to visit is from November to March.
- Pakke Tiger Reserve: The best time to visit is from November to April.
- Kaziranga Tiger Reserve: The best time to visit is from November to April.
- Manas Tiger Reserve: The best time to visit is from November to April.
- Nameri Tiger Reserve: The best time to visit is from November to April.
- Orang Tiger Reserve: The best time to visit is from November to April.
- Valmiki Tiger Reserve: The best time to visit is from November to April.
- Achanakmar Tiger Reserve: The best time to visit is from November to June.
It is important to note that these are general guidelines and the exact best time to visit may vary depending on factors such as weather conditions and animal behavior. It is advisable to check with the specific tiger reserve for more accurate information.
Different Seasons and Their Impact on Tiger Reserves
Seasons might affect Indian tiger sanctuaries. Weather and vegetation can influence wildlife, especially tigers.
Most tiger reserves have water shortages in summer, from March to May, due to high temperatures. Animals gather near water sources, making them easier to identify. Tigers and other creatures concealed in deep forests are easy to notice in dry vegetation. Thus, most tiger reserves recommend summer for wildlife viewing.
The monsoon season, from June to September, brings severe rain to most of India, including tiger sanctuaries. Due to lush greenery and plenty of water, tigers and other animals are hard to notice as they look for food and drink. Floods and landslides close most tiger reserves during monsoon season.
Visit tiger reserves in October and November after the monsoon. Bird-watching and other wildlife sightings are good due to the warm weather and abundant greenery.
Tiger reserves are popular in winter, from December through February. Tigers and other animals are easier to spot during the mild monsoon season because the forest is thinner. Winter wildlife is best seen early and late.
The optimal time to visit any tiger reserve depends on its location, climate, and vegetation. To maximize wildlife viewing, visitors should verify with park authorities before visiting.
Safety and Precautions in Tiger Reserves
To have a safe and fun vacation to tiger reserves, follow these safety tips. Safety tips for visiting Indian tiger reserves:
- Visitors must obey tiger reserve restrictions. These rules protect parkgoers and wildlife. Check the park restrictions before entering.
- Visitors should never enter restricted places. To protect yourself and wildlife, respect these restricted zones.
- Maintain a safe distance from park animals. Wild animals may attack if approached too closely.
- Park visitors should not trash. Litter harms wildlife, the park ecology, and pollution.
- Safari guides should be followed. The guide knows the park and can protect you and the animals.
- Loud noises unsettle wildlife and make them violent. Keep the park quiet.
- Feeding animals can hurt them and make them dependent on people. Avoid feeding animals.
- If you have medical conditions, bring your medicines. Bring insect repellent, sunscreen, and other weather protection.
- Wear comfortable park-appropriate attire. Stay neutral to blend in.
Visitors can enjoy Indian tiger reserves safely by following these safety guidelines.
FAQ about Tiger Reserves in India
- How many tiger reserves are in India?
Out of the 50 tiger reserves in India, the tiger conservation plans (TCPs) for 35 reserves have been approved by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA), while the plans for the remaining reserves are still under preparation or scrutiny.
- Which state has no tiger reserve?
Jammu and Kashmir
- Where is the largest tiger reserve?
The Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve is the largest tiger reserve in India. It is situated in the Nallamala forest, spanning five districts, including Kurnool District, Prakasam District, Guntur District, Nalgonda District, and Mahabub Nagar District.
- Which tiger Reserve has zero tigers?
Mizoram's Dampa Reserve, West Bengal's Buxa Reserve, and Jharkhand's Palamau Reserve are the three reserves in India where tigers are not present.
- Which state is the first tiger reserve?
Bandipur (Karnataka) in 1973-74.
- Which is the smallest tiger reserve?
Bor Tiger Reserve (Maharashtra) is the smallest Tiger Reserve in India.