The Indian States and their Languages

The Indian States and their Languages – India, a union of states, is a sovereign, secular, democratic republic with a parliamentary system of government.

India has become one of the most diverse cultural nations globally is divided into 28 states and eight union territories for administrative purposes.

The tradition, culture, art, language, and food vary from state to state and are unique to each region.

While India has 22 different official languages, it is home to 121 languages and 270 mother tongues. It’s also home to the world’s oldest language, Hindi.

The major ones are the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 78.05% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 19.64% of Indians, and both families together are sometimes known as Indic languages.

Hindi and English are the two official languages of India and 22 Scheduled Languages as per the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India.

The Indian States and their Languages

State

Official Languages

Second Language

Andhra Pradesh

Telugu

Hindi

Arunachal Pradesh

English

Hindi

Assam

Assamese

Bengali, Bodo

Bihar

Hindi

Urdu

Chhattisgarh

Hindi

Chhattisgarhi

Goa

Konkani, English

Marathi

Gujarat

Gujarati

Hindi

Haryana

Hindi

English, Punjabi

Himachal Pradesh

Hindi

Sanskrit

Jharkhand

Hindi

Angika, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Ho, Kharia, Khortha, Kurmali, Kurukh, Magahi, Maithili, Mundari, Nagpuri, Odia, Santali and Urdu

Karnataka

Kannada

English

Kerala

Malayalam

English

Madhya Pradesh

Hindi

Marathi

Maharashtra

Marathi

Hindi

Manipur

Manipuri

English

Meghalaya

English

Khasi and Garo

Mizoram

Mizo

English, Hindi

Nagaland

English

Nagamese

Odisha

Odia

English

Punjab

Punjabi

-

Rajasthan

Hindi

-

Sikkim

English, Nepali, Sikkimese, Lepcha

Gurung, Limbu, Magar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa and Tamang

Tamil Nadu

Tamil

English

Telangana

Telugu

Urdu

Tripura

Bengali, English, Kokborok

-

Uttar Pradesh

Hindi

Urdu

Uttarakhand

Hindi

Sanskrit

West Bengal

Bengali, English

Nepali, Urdu, Hindi, Odia, Santali, Punajbi, Kamtapuri, Rajbanshi, Kurmali, Kurukh and Telugu

Union Territories and their Languages

Union Territories

Official Languages

Spoken Language

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Hindi, English

Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Hindi, Nicobarese, Malayalam, Sadri, Kurukh, Munda, Kharia

Chandigarh

English

-

Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu

Gujarati, Konkani, Marathi, Hindi

-

Delhi

Hindi, English

Urdu and Punjabi

Lakshadweep

Malayalam

English

Jammu and Kashmir

Kashmiri, Dogri, Hindi, Urdu, English

Ladakh

Hindi, English

Puducherry

Tamil, French, English

Telugu and Malayalam

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